What is Sanitization? Process, Method and Effects of Sanitization!

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The method of making something sanitary by reducing its germs, bacteria’s and other microorganisms by cleaning and disinfecting it.


The removal of microorganisms presents on wounds, clothes and on hard surfaces(whether pathogenic or not)by using chemicals.

Sanitization is synonymous with sanitation, implying hygienic treatment or recycling of waste.

Sanitation or cleaning is an important step towards managing contagious germs by reducing the risk of germs by eliminating them.

Difference between Sanitation, Disinfection, and Sterilization:

As we cleared the concept of sanitation, we will also know the importance of the Disinfection and Sterilization process..

  1. Sanitation:– cleaning something to make it free from elements that can cause bacteria and diseases.
  2. Sterilization:– it is a process in which all the microorganisms are completely inactivated or fully destroyed.
  3. Disinfection:– a process where all of the viruses, bacteria, and fungi are eliminated from the surface. This method can only be used in non-living surfaces because disinfection can cause damage to living skin which can cause various irritation and allergic reactions.

What is Sterilization? Methods of its use, How does it affects the microbes and Why it is important?

 DEFINITION– It is a process by which all of the microorganisms are fully inactivated or killed directly. 

  • OF USING STERILIZATION– there are many ways by which we can sterilize equipment and other surfaces.
  • Steam is one of the popular ways but it cannot be used for sensitive heat items.
  • We can also use Autoclave for sterilizing which is an instrument that uses a mix combination of high temperature and pressure to kill the microbes.

Liquid chemicals, ozone, and ethylene oxide gas can also be used for sterilizing processes.


  • Steam/High temperature can destroy the protein of bacteria when exposed.
  • The enzymes are the proteins of microbes since they are destroyed by high temperatures so that the organisms cannot regenerate again.
  • Bacteria and microbes can be killed by ozone molecules by destroying the cell wall of the organisms.
  • The ethylene oxide gas can stop the microbes, viruses, and spores from reproducing by destroying their DNA.


  • Sterilization plays an important part in the medical line because of the equipment and other instruments used for performing surgeries.
  • Without sterilization there would be a very high risk to the patient of being infectious and becoming very ill or the patient can even die.

What do u mean by Sanitization, it’s methods, effects on microbes and why it is important to sanitize?

DEFINITION-It is processed by which the microorganisms are lessened so that they cannot be harmful to people, which means sanitizing is needed to perform more often so that we can avoid the thick layers of bacteria’s developing on the surfaces because some viruses and spores cannot be affected by sanitization.


  • Sanitizer should be applied after the cleaning of the surfaces.
  • Chemicals can also be used as a sanitizing agent, which contains sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, calcium hypochlorite, sodium hypocrite, organic chlorine and chlorine gas are also used for sanitizing.
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds are very good sanitizers for cleaning equipment.
  • By following the directions of use we can reduce a big amount of microbes within half a minute after sanitizing the surfaces.


· Sanitation helps us by destroying the genetic material and enzymes of the bacterial cell and prevent it from other microbes by reducing the risk of being contaminated.


  • By doing proper sanitization we can prevent ourselves from getting ill from microbes that are carried on the food items.
  • It is important to sanitize because microbes can cross-contaminate from one food to another, if the surfaces in which the food is prepared are not sanitized properly. 

Similarities between Sanitation and Sterilization:-

  • Both sterilization and sanitization are important but sterilization destroys all of the microbes.
  • Both help us from getting sick.
  • Sanitization is important in the food industry which helps us by reducing the risk of enzymes and microbes.
  • Sanitizing means elimination of pollutants that may allow bacteria to develop, while sterilizing helps with the full destruction of bacteria’s.
  • Sanitization is a procedure that reduces the number of bacteria below a certain level but doesn’t kill all of the microorganisms. Sterilization requires many other chemicals or heat to destroy all of the microorganisms.
  • Sterilization will inactivate all spores and viruses while some viruses and spores will not be affected by sanitization.
  • The sterilization process is mainly used in medical surfaces and equipment while sanitization is used for the equipment that is used for making foods.
  • Sterilization and sanitization both either stop or destroys the microbial cells that are reproducing on the surfaces that can affect us. 
  • The sanitizing agent can remove 99.999% of microorganisms while the sterilizing process can kill 99.99999999% of organism present on surfaces.
  • The sterilizing process can be done by using a stream, high temperature, ethylene oxide gas, chemicals, and ozone. On the other hand, sanitization can be achieved by using chemicals substances like sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite, organic chlorine, and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate.


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